University of Kentucky Computing Center
                                     PRIME User's Guide
                                                                     Version 11.3b
                                                              PRIMOS Revision 23.2
                                                                    August 9, 1994
                                                            University of Kentucky
                                                                  Computing Center
                                                   Lexington, Kentucky  40506-0045
                                                                    (606) 257-2900
          HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1
           COMPUTING RESOURCES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
          Connecting to the PRIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
          The PRIME System  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
          Logging In  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
          Looking Up Your Account Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
          Logging Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
          System Prompts   OK, and ER!  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
          Control Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
          Special Characters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
          Special Keys  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
          Online Help and User Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                   Using Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                   Getting Information Using VIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
          Reporting Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
          Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                   Creating a File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                   Creating a Sub-directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                   Naming a File or Sub-directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                   Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
                   Commands for File and Sub-directory Handling . . . . . . . . 17
                   Listing the Contents of Files  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
          Changing Your Password  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
          RECORDing, Hardcopy Copies of Terminal Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . 22
          Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
          Using BITNET and INTERNET with MAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
          COMPUTER LANGUAGES AND PACKAGES ON THE PRIME  . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
          ADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
          BASIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
          C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
          COBOL85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
          FORTRAN 77  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
          PASCAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
          PILOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
          PROLOG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
          Database Package  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                   ORACLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
          Wordprocessing Package  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                   PRIMEWORD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
          Statistical Packages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                   GLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
          Various Subroutines Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                   IMSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
          Spreadsheet Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
                   QuickPlan  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
          The EXEC Command  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
          BIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
          THE SHEFFIELD EDITOR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
          Line Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                   Input Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                   Edit Mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                   Changing Between Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                   More Information on the Line Editor  . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
          Line Editor Commands  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                   MODE Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
                   Special Characters Available with the Editor . . . . . . . . 36
                   Special Symbols Available with the Editor  . . . . . . . . . 36
                   Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
          Window Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
                   Window Editor Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
              Special Keys in the Window Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
          MINI-COMMAND LEVEL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
          COMMON ERROR MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
          GETTING MORE INFORMATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
                                   HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
             This  User's Guide  is an  introduction  to the  UKCC (University  of
          Kentucky Computing  Center)  PRIME Computer  System.   It will  give you
          general information  you will  need to perform  basic operations  on the
          PRIME.   For more specific information,  you will need to refer to other
          manuals such  as the  Sheffield Editor  User's Guide  and the  PRIMEWORD
          User's Guide.
             Information regarding access to the system (login and logout)  can be
          found in the following section:
                   -  Accessing and Using the UKCC PRIME Computer System
             If you will be working with  a pre-written program such as PRIMEWORD,
          MINITAB, etc. or one written by your instructor, you will need to obtain
          the  proper  documentation for  the  specific  program from  either  the
          instructor or a manual.
             If you  will be creating  and editing files  you will need  to review
          these sections:
                   -  System Prompts
                   -  Special Characters
                   -  Files and Directories
                   -  Commands for File and Sub-directory Handling
                   -  The Sheffield Editor
             If you will be writing high-level language programs, you will need to
          review the following sections:
                   -  Computer Languages and Packages on the PRIME
                   -  The EXEC Command
             To get  information on any of  the available PRIMOS  (PRIMe Operating
          System) commands and how to use them, refer to the section titled:
                   -  Getting Help
             For a list  of additional manuals which are available,   refer to the
          section titled:
                   -  Getting More Information
          *** (Note:  Some manuals are only available through purchasing from
               PRIME, Inc.)
               Throughout  this manual you will be shown what to type
               to obtain the results you want.  This manual will always assume
               that you understand  that one of the two system prompts ("OK,"
               and "ER!") is displayed when  the  suggested command  is to be
               entered,  unless  it is shown  that  another  prompt should be
               expected.  Also, you must press the carriage return key after
               typing any command in order for  that command to be issued.
                                           - 1 -
          ***NOTE:  The following is the computing  policy taken verbatim from the
          brochure explaining the policy.
          In support of its mission to provide excellent instruction, modern
          research, and meaningful service, the University of Kentucky offers
          computing resources to its students, faculty, and staff.  These
          resources contribute to the work of all members of the University
          community and, therefore, must be used with great care.
          This brochure is intended to help set the tone for computing and
          for the use of computing resources at the University of Kentucky:
          respect for the rights of all users and fair use by all so as to
          guarantee equal access to all users.  The goal of the University in
          providing computing resources is to give users powerful tools to
          further their academic endeavors.  The  privacy of all users and of
          all of their files is a fundamental right that should be respected by
          all.  You should never use the computing resources in any way that
          violates the privacy of others.  Clearly defined procedures
          established to protect your rights will always be followed as the
          University maintains the computing system.
          Careful and ethical use of computing resources is the responsibility
          of every user.  As a user of these resources, you agree to  be subject
          to the guidelines of the "Policy Governing Access to and Use of
          University of Kentucky Computing Resources."  These guidelines
          apply to all computing resources provided by the University; some
          are more directly related to mainframe systems, some to
          microcomputers and local area networks, and some to all systems.
          This brochure includes and expands upon those guidelines, and
          contains a glossary of the technical terms used in the policy.  In the
          text that follows, the Policy itself is preceded by the > symbol;
          comments, explanations, and expansions are not.
          > Access to computing resources is granted to an individual by
          > the University of Kentucky solely for the grantee's own use.
          > Every user of the University of Kentucky computing resources
          > has two basic rights regarding computing -- privacy and a fair
          > share of resources.  It is unethical and a violation of this policy
          > for any person to violate these rights.
          > All users, in turn, are expected to exercise common sense and
          > decency (due regard for the rights of others) with respect to the
          > public computing resources, thereby reflecting the spirit of
          > community and intellectual inquiry at the University.  Access is
          > a right that may be limited or revoked if an individual misuses
          > the right or violates applicable University policies or state or
          > federal laws.
          > I.  Principles Governing Use of Computing Resources
                                           - 2 -
          >  A.  User access is granted to an individual and may not be
          > transferred to or shared with another without explicit written
          > authorization by the Vice President for Information Systems, a
          > designee, or the appropriate system administrator.
          This principle is intended to protect the integrity, security, and
          privacy of your account.  Sharing access with another
          individual undermines the security of your account, leaving it
          vulnerable to abuse by others.  By not sharing your account,
          you protect against unauthorized activities on your account, for
          which you would be responsible.  You may be charged with a
          violation if someone uses your account with your permission
          and violates policy.  Just as important, sharing or transferring
          access jeopardizes the security of the entire computing system
          because it weakens one of the "links" in the system "chain."
          For information on obtaining your own account, contact:
               User Account Services -- 257-2212.
          For information on how to share files or data, or forward e-mail
          to another user safely,  contact:
               the University Help Desk -- 257-2249.
          > B.  User access to computing resources is contingent upon
          >  prudent and responsible use.
          Imprudent use of computing resources can lead to
          consequences affecting many other users, not just yourself.  For
          example, not using virus protection software on networked
          microcomputers could allow the introduction of a virus that
          could destroy the work of many other users.
          Prudent and responsible use begins with common sense and
          includes respect for the rights and privacy of other users.  For
          example, as a prudent and responsible user, you should:
               (1)  Not share your account with any other user
               (2)  Protect your password by choosing it wisely, keeping it
                    secure, and changing it regularly
               (3)  Back up files on a regular basis to ensure the safety of
                    important data in the event of a system failure
               (4)  Log off your account when leaving a terminal
               (5)  Always use virus protection software
          > C.  The user may not use computing resources for any illegal or
          > unauthorized act; in particular, the user may not use computing
          > resources to violate any state or federal laws or any of the
          > regulations specified in the Governing Regulations, the
          > Administrative Regulations, the Student Rights and
          > Responsibilities handbook (Code of Student Conduct), the
          > Rules of the University Senate, the Faculty Code, the University
          > System Faculty Handbook, or the Staff Handbook.
          You will find copies of all of these documents in Special
                                           - 3 -
          Collections in the University Archives section of M.I. King
          Library.  Some of them are listed on VIEW as well.  To access
          VIEW, log on to the Prime (UKPR), the IBM (UKCC), or one of
          the Wang systems, and type or choose VIEW; then follow the
          > D.  The user may not use computing resources for any
          > commercial purpose without prior written authorization from
          > the Vice President for Information Systems, a designee, or the
          > appropriate system administrator.
          Work under approved University contracts and grants is
          covered under the usual internal approval processes, which
          serve as the requisite "prior written authorization."  If you need
          to open a commercial account or would like more information,
          contact User Accounts, 130 McVey Hall, 257-2212 or 257-2217.
          > E.  Computing resources must be shared among users in an
          > equitable manner.  The user may not participate in any
          > behavior that unreasonably interferes with the fair use of
          >  computing resources by another.
          Computing resources are finite and must be shared.  During
          periods of peak demand, facilities may enforce guidelines to
          require sharing resources for the benefit of everyone.
          Examples of unreasonable interference include, but are not
          limited to:
          (1)  Playing games for recreation when another user needs the
               resource for more scholarly activities
          (2)  Exceeding established disk space, time, or other allocations
          (3)  Intentionally running programs that attempt to execute
               endless loops
          (4)  Printing large jobs during periods of heavy computer use
          (5)  Printing multiple copies of a document
          (6)  Printing paper copies when "print preview" on a terminal
               would suffice
          > II.  Some Examples of Violations
          This section of the Policy consists of a list of several activities
          that you cannot or should not do.  While these are not all of the
          possible violations, there are still many more things you can do
          than things you can't do. This list is intended to inform you and
          to reinforce the principles of fair and responsible computer use
          that we seek to engender at the University of Kentucky.
          > Violations of these principles or any attempt to violate these
          > principles constitutes misuse.  Violations include, but are not
          > limited to:
                                           - 4 -
          > A.  Sharing passwords or acquiring another's password without
          > prior written authorization from University Computing
          > Services or the appropriate system administrator
          The consequences of sharing your password can be significant
          for the system and for you as well.  This action leaves you
          vulnerable to such things as impersonation by another user.
          However, even if you are not concerned about the safety of your
          own account and data, you have a responsibility to other users
          to help maintain the security of the system.  Your responsibility
          is like that of a tenant in an apartment building.  Though the
          tenant may not be concerned about his or her own apartment,
          feeling that it contains little or nothing of value, he or she still
          has a responsibility to the other tenants to keep the main
          entrance secure.
          On occasion, you may want to share files or data or e-mail with
          other users.  For information on how to do that safely, contact
          the University Computing Help Desk at 257-2249.
          > B.  Unauthorized accessing, using, copying, modifying, or
          > deleting of files, data, userids, access rights, usage records, or
          > disk space allocations
          You are authorized to access, use, copy, modify, or delete files,
          data, or access rights on your own account as specified in the
          Policy.  You are not authorized to perform any of these
          functions on another user's account or a University system
          unless specifically given permission by the account holder, your
          job description, the Vice President for Information Systems, a
          designee, or the appropriate system administrator.
          A person who finds a door to another's home unlocked does not
          have the right to enter the home simply because it is unsecured.
          Similarly, the fact that someone's account and its data are
          unprotected does not mean that you have the right to access it.
          > C.  Accessing resources for purposes other than those for which
          > the access was originally issued, including inappropriate use of
          > authority or special privileges
          User privacy is not to be violated; all users are to be protected
          from unauthorized activity by a system administrator or other
          > D.  Copying or capturing licensed software for use on a system
          > or by an individual for which the software is not authorized or
          > licensed
          The University of Kentucky subscribes to the principles
          expressed in the EDUCOM Guide to the Ethical and Legal Use
          of Software.  According to U.S. Copyright Law, all intellectual
          works are automatically covered by copyright unless explicitly
          noted to the contrary.  "Unauthorized copying and use of
          software deprives publishers and developers of a fair  return for
                                           - 5 -
          their work, increases prices, reduces the level of future support
          and enhancements, and can inhibit the development of new
          software products."
                    -- "Using Software:  A Guide to the Ethical and
                         Legal Use of Software for Members of the
                         Academic Community"
          U.S. Copyright law applies to all software users.  For a full
          reproduction of the EDUCOM guidelines, check VIEW.  For a
          printed copy of the guidelines, write or call:  EDUCOM, 1112
          16th Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC  20036, (202) 872 -
          4200.  If you are unsure about whether you possess legal
          software copies, contact the University Help Desk -- 257-2249 --
          for more information.
          The University of Kentucky does not condone or authorize the
          illegal copying or possession of software.  University students
          and employees are prohibited from copying software illegally
          and possessing illegal copies of software, whether for course-,
          job-related, or private use.  Any violations of this policy or of
          Copyright law are the personal responsibility of the user.  The
          University will not assume any liability for such acts.
          Furthermore, University Computing Services will refuse to
          provide support for a user who cannot demonstrate that the
          software involved was obtained legally.
          > E.  Use of computing resources for remote activities that are
          > unauthorized at the remote site
          For example, if you are accessing another university's system
          using a UK computing resource, you must obey that school's
          own computing rules.  Your actions reflect upon the entire
          University of Kentucky community.
          > F.  Causing computer failure through an intentional attempt to
          > "crash the system," or through the intentional introduction of a
          > program that is intended to subvert a system, such as a worm,
          > virus, Trojan horse, or one that creates a trap door
          You have a responsibility to other users to help maintain the
          security of the system.  The intentional introduction of a
          subversive program is considered a grave offense.  Taking
          reasonable precautions is part of your responsibility.  If you
          think you may have accidentally introduced one of these
          programs, contact your local system administrator or call 257-
          2249.  For information on virus protection software, call 257-
          2249, as well.
          > G.  Intentional obscuring or forging of the date, time, physical
          > source, logical source, or other header information of a message
          > or transaction
          Header information of electronic mail, files, and printouts is an
          essential part of the identification and documentation of your
                                           - 6 -
          work.  Forging electronic mail or masking identification
          information -- for amusement, personal gain, or other reasons --
          is not allowed.
          > H.  Interception of transmitted information without prior
          > written authorization from University Computing Services or
          > the appropriate system administrator
          This violation is a serious invasion of another user's privacy and
          is analogous to tapping that person's telephone line.  The
          University respects the right to privacy of all users and
          endeavors to do all in its power to maintain that right.  You
          should be aware that sometimes, in the course of system
          maintenance, transmissions are tracked, but the contents are not
          read.  You should also be aware that unauthorized users of the
          system are not afforded this same protection from invasion of
          their privacy.  This means that the University can and will read
          transmissions by unauthorized users, to maintain the integrity
          and security of the computer resources for all authorized users.
          > I.  Failure to protect one's account from unauthorized use (e.g.,
          > leaving one's terminal publicly logged on but unattended)
          When you do not protect your account from unauthorized use,
          you weaken the security of not only your account, but the entire
          system.  Keeping your password secure and attending to your
          account when logged on are key means of protection.
          > J.  Violation of priorities for use of computing resources as
          > established by an individual facility within the UK system
          Some UK computing facilities may have no usage rules beyond
          those given in this brochure.  However, many have established
          priorities for use of computing resources to ensure that
          scholarly activities are granted more weight than, for example,
          recreational gameplay and other non-academic pursuits.  These
          priorities must be respected.
          > III.  Response to Violations
          > Violation of this policy will result in action by the appropriate
          > University office or agency.  Violations of KRS 434.840
          > (Kentucky statutes dealing with unlawful access or use of a
          > computer) may be referred to the Commonwealth Attorney or
          > the police for investigation and/or prosecution.  Similarly,
          > violations of 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1030 (Federal laws dealing with
          > unlawful access or use of a computer) may be referred to the
          > Federal Bureau of Investigation.
          Sanctions for violation of these state and federal laws may be as
          severe as a $50,000 fine and/or up to 5 years in jail.
          > IV.  University Sanctions
          > University sanctions are imposed by the appropriate University
                                           - 7 -
          > authority and may include, but are not limited to, limitation or
          > revocation of access rights and/or reimbursement to the
          > University for the computing and personnel charges incurred in
          > detecting and proving the violation of these rules, as well as
          > from the violation itself.  Reimbursement may include
          > compensation for staff work time related to the violation and
          > for archiving information related to the incident.  The usual
          > rights and privileges of appeal apply.
          In some previous cases, these charges have reached several
          thousand dollars.
          > V.  Investigation and Review of Charges
          > When the Vice President for Information Systems, a designee,
          > or the appropriate system administrator has reason to believe
          > that a violation may have occurred, he or she may initiate an
          > investigation and/or suspend computing privileges for the
          > individual(s) involved, pending further investigation.  If
          > significant University sanctions are imposed, such action,
          > together with an explanation of the causal events, shall be
          > reported by the Vice President or the appropriate system
          > administrator to the Dean of Students' office, in case of
          > students; or to the appropriate Chancellor's or Vice President's
          > office, for all others.
          > In cases where a user's computing privileges are limited or
          > revoked, a user should request a review of the action according
          > to procedures established by University Computing Services
          > before appealing through other University channels.
          Investigating officials will examine charges of violations with
          due respect for both individual privacy and the security of other
          > GLOSSARY
          > Access right:  permission to use a UK computing resource
          > according to appropriate limitations, controls, and guidelines
          > Commercial purpose:  a goal or end involving the buying and/or
          > selling of goods or services for the purpose of making a profit
          > Computing resource:  any computing/network equipment,
          > facility, or service made available to users by the University of
          > Kentucky
          > Data:  a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions suitable
          > for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or
          > automatic means
          > Disk space allocation:  the amount of disk storage space assigned
          > to a particular user by University Computing Services or the
          > appropriate system administrator
          > Fair use:  use of computing resources in accordance with this
          > policy and with the rules of an individual UK facility; use of
          > computing resources so as not to unreasonably interfere with the
                                           - 8 -
          > use of the same resources by others
          > File:  a collection of data treated as a unit
          > Inappropriate use of authority or special privilege:  use of one's
          > access right(s) or position of authority in a manner that violates
          > the rules for use of those privileges as specified by the Vice
          > President for Information Systems, a designee, or the appropriate
          > system administrator
          > Password:  a string of characters that a user must supply to meet
          > security requirements before gaining access to a particular
          > computing resource
          > Prudent and responsible use:  use of computing resources in a
          > manner that promotes the efficient use and security of one's own
          > access right(s), the access rights of other users, and UK
          > computing resources
          > Remote activity:  any computing action or behavior that accesses
          > remote site facilities via a UK computing resource
          > Remote site:  any computing/network equipment, facility, or
          > service not part of, but connected with, UK computing resources
          > via a communications network
          > System administrator:  any individual authorized by the Vice
          > President for Information Systems, the appropriate Chancellor or
          > Vice President, or a designee to administer a particular
          > computing hardware system and/or its system software
          > Transmission:  the transfer of a signal, message, or other form of
          > intelligence from one location to another
          > Unauthorized act:  with the exception of computing actions or
          > behaviors permitted in this policy, any such act performed
          > without the explicit permission of the Vice President for
          > Information Systems, a designee, or the appropriate system
          > administrator
          > Usage record:  information or data indicating the level of usage of
          > computing resources by a particular user
          > User:  any individual -- whether student, faculty, staff, or
          > individual external to UK -- who uses UK computing resources
          > Userid:  a character string that uniquely identifies a particular
          > user to a UK computing resource
                                           - 9 -
             To use the PRIME system you must  have access to a terminal which can
          be connected to  the system,  either by using terminals  provided by the
          UKCC,  or  through a telephone hook-up  using a "modem".   The  UKCC has
          provided clusters of terminals around campus for your use.  Each cluster
          has from ten to thirty CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)  terminals and a DECwriter
          III terminal which is used as  a printer for hardcopy output.   Terminal
          clusters are located at:
               *  Agricultural Data Center
               *  Business and Economics Bldg     Room 100
                  (Site consists of PCs           (Business Information Center)
                   connected to the campus
                   network, instead of terminals)
               *  Health Sci. Learning Ctr.       6th floor
               *  Kirwan-Blanding Commons         2nd floor
               *  McVey Hall                      Room 111
               *  M. I. King Library              Room 213 King South
                                                  (M. I. King Computer Lab)
               *  Patterson Office Tower          Mezzanine
               *  Student Center                  Room 208
             Student consultants  are available at some  of the more  heavily used
          sites during  specified hours displayed  at the location.    The student
          consultants  will  provide assistance  in  accessing  the PRIME  and  in
          general use  of the PRIME and  PRIMOS,  report equipment  problems,  and
          replace ribbons and paper in the printer.   The student consultants will
          not debug programs  or explain programming techniques.   Please see your
          instructor and do not ask the consultant to do this.   You may also type
          HELP CONSULT  for information on sites  and hours where  consultants are
          scheduled to work.
             To "dial up" the PRIME from an outside source, dial 323-2400 for 1200
          or 2400 baud, or 323-1996 for 9600 baud (no parity,  full duplex,  eight
          (8) data bits, one (1)  stop bit).   For more information on making your
          modem work  with the PRIME,   see a lab assistant  at one of  the public
          microcomputer  labs  for  information  on   obtaining  software  and  on
          configuring your  modem and computer,   or call the  Information Systems
          Help Desk at 257-2249.
          The  Prime  system  is  a  model 6650.    It  is  rated  at  24  million
          instructions per second (MIPS)  and is equipped with 4 gigabytes of disk
          storage and 128 megabytes of main memory.   It has Ethernet hardware and
          software which allow participation in FTP  and TELNET.   The nodename of
          this machine  on the campus network  is UKPR,  the Internet  nodename is
          ukpr.uky.edu, and the Internet numerical address is
                                           - 10 -
          LOGGING IN
             For the  following commands,  anything that  is to be typed  into the
          computer may  be typed in either  upper or lower case  characters.   All
          commands  require  that you  press  the  RETURN  key after  typing  your
                   1.   Turn  the  ON/OFF switch to ON (located  at
                        the right  rear  bottom of  the  terminal).
                        The terminal will sound a short beep.
                   2.   Hit RETURN several times until you see
                        this screen message:
                             >>You may now enter General Net/One commands.
                   3.   Type
                             C UKPR
                        (Note  that  when  you  press  the spacebar
                        after the letter C, the full word 'Connect'
                        is spelled out for you.)
                   4.   In the login step below, you will need the account
                        name (or userid) and the password which has been
                        given to you (for an example we will use the ficti-
                        tious account name UK00000 and the password
                        Press RETURN.
                   5.   The system will respond with
                             Connecting ... (1)UKPR-xxx Success.
                        Now press the RETURN key.  The system will
                        respond with
                        and then you should type your  account name
                        (UK00000 for example) and press RETURN. (If
                        you do not already have an account name see
                        the  following  section  on  LOOKUP.)   The
                        screen will look like this:
                             login:  UK00000
                   6.   The system will then respond with
                        and  you  should  then  type your password,
                                           - 11 -
                        which in this example is TESTIT.  You  will
                        not see  your  password  typed  (echoed) on
                        the screen as  you type  it.  Your password
                        is hidden from view  to prevent others from
                        looking over your shoulder and getting your
                        password, thereby gaining  access  to  your
                        account.  Don't forget  to   hit the RETURN
                        key after typing the password.
                   7.   The  system  will  then  respond with login
                        messages and you  will be  ready to proceed
                        with  whatever  you  need  to  do  when the
                        system prompt
                        is displayed.
          (NOTE:   For more  extensive  information on  using  UKNET,  the  Campus
          Network, type HELP NETWORK.)
             If  you do  not already  know your  account number  (or userid)   and
          password,  login to the account named  LOOKUP using the password LOOKUP.
          When prompted type  in your first or  last name.   A list  of names that
          match the  first or  last name  you typed  in will  be displayed  on the
          screen along with a corresponding account.  Locate your name on the list
          and your account number will be next to it.   Your password will be your
          student id number or your staff/faculty id number.   (Note that you will
          enter your  9 digit  id number  with no  dashes (-)   or spaces  as your
          password.)   You will be required to change your password the first time
          you login.   Passwords must  be at least 5 characters in  length but not
          more than 16 characters long. Embedded spaces are not allowed.
          LOGGING OUT
             To end your terminal session, type
             (This command, LOGOUT,  can be abbreviated to just LO.)   You must be
          aware of  the timeout  feature.  If  you do  not use  your terminal  for
          fifteen (15)   minutes,  the system will  automatically log you  out and
          display the message
                   Maximum Inactive Time Limit Exceeded
                                           - 12 -
             The  system  prompts tell  you  that  PRIMOS  is awaiting  your  next
          command. There are two default prompts:
                   1.   OK,
                   2.   ER!
             The "OK," prompt  tells you that the  last command that you  gave was
          successfully executed and PRIMOS is now awaiting your next command.  The
          "ER!"  prompt tells  you  that the  last  command  was not  successfully
          executed and that  PRIMOS is now awaiting your next  command.   "ER!" is
          usually preceded by one or more error messages describing the failure of
          the last command.
          CONTROL KEY
             The Control Key on the terminal may be used in conjunction with other
          keys to create a new usage for that specific other key.  If somewhere in
          this text you see CTRL+U,  for example,   you will need to hold down the
          Control Key, press and release the U key, then release the Control Key.
             The CRT  terminals have certain  characteristics that are  built into
          the terminal.  To display the current terminal characteristics, type
                   TERM -DISPLAY
             The default settings are:
                   *  kill character       -- CTRL+U
                        deletes everything typed since the RETURN
                        key was last pressed.
                   *  backspace character  -- backspace key
                        deletes the last character typed.
          SPECIAL KEYS
          RETURN           The RETURN key  signals  PRIMOS that  you
                           have completed typing a  command and that
                           you are ready  for PRIMOS  to process the
          BREAK            Stops    whatever  is   currently   being
            or             processed in  memory and  returns  PRIMOS
          CTRL+P           to your control.
                                           - 13 -
          CTRL+S           Stops output scrolling on the CRT  screen
                           for viewing.
          CTRL+Q           Resumes  output   scrolling  on  the  CRT
                           screen for viewing.
          ; (semicolon)    The logical  end-of-line  character.  The
                           semicolon is used to  enter more than one
                           command on one line.
               Using Help
             To enter the online help facility type
             Once in the HELP facility, you have to enter commands to move through
          a series of menus  where you can pick new topics by  number or move back
          to previous ones.   The commands available  for each screen are shown at
          the bottom of the screen.  You simply enter the letter or number of your
          choice and then press the <return> key.   These commands are as follows:
          (NOTE: Not all are available at every screen.  Check the bottom line for
          applicable commands for the current screen.)
          Q uit          quit from HELP
          R efresh       refresh your screen
          U p            up a level,  (used after diving),  or to get back to main
          N ext          display next screen of text for current topic
          P revious      display previous screen of text for current topic
          S tart over    display first screen of text for current topic
          D ive          go to a deeper level of help
          X refs         list a cross reference
          H elp          help about HELP commands and usage
          #              display information for an item (where # is a number)
          <break key>    pressing the break key will take you to the main menu, or
                          if you are at the main menu, will exit HELP
             The basic way to get help is to simply type HELP.  This will give you
          a list of all available help topics.   You can page through these,  then
          enter the number of the topic you wish to see.   The quickest way to get
          the information  you want  is to type   HELP topic,   (where topic  is a
          keyword for the information you want), for example, HELP LD.   This will
          display the help text for the LD  command and give you an opportunity to
          Dive to a deeper level to get help on various options.
             If you know the option or sub-topic  you are looking for,  you can go
          directly to that point by typing  HELP topic -OPT option.   For example,
          HELP LD -OPT FILE.   This will give you  help on the -FILE option to the
          LD command.
                                           - 14 -
             When entering  the help facility,  you  will be asked for  a terminal
          type.   Enter the type of terminal that you are using so the full screen
          capabilities will work  correctly.   At the printing of  this manual the
          terminal  types for  TVI910P and  TVI955 (terminals  located at  cluster
          sites) are not defined, but selecting TVI924 should suffice for the time
          being.  VT100 has been tested and works for any device emulating a VT100
          terminal.   We  are investigating  adding more  types.   If  you have  a
          terminal not listed when you first enter  HELP then choose TTY.   If you
          do not want to  be prompted each time you enter  the HELP facility,  you
          should use the TSET  command to tell the system your  terminal type when
          you login.  For more information, see the online help for TSET by typing
          HELP TSET.
               Getting Information Using VIEW
             VIEW is a service that distributes information to our users.  VIEW is
          used to  both access  general information and  to access  other commands
          that provide general information.  For example, you can use VIEW to both
          get information on campus events, and to access the online phone book or
          schedule book to get phone numbers or class information.
          To use VIEW type
             Once in VIEW you will be shown a list of topics from which to choose.
          You can  pick the  number of the  topic,  or enter  one of  the commands
          displayed at the bottom of the screen.  These commands are as follows:
          Q    quit VIEW
          R    redraw your screen
          F    display the  next screen  of topics (pressing  the return  key will
               also do this)
          B    display the previous screen of topics
          #    entering the  item number will display  information or take  you to
               the next level where you can get more information
             VIEW requires that you  use the TSET command to tell  the system your
          terminal type when you login.  For more information, see the online help
          for TSET by typing HELP TSET.
             When you have complaints or suggestions  about the PRIME,  you should
          report them  using SUGGEST.    SUGGEST can  also be  used for  reporting
          broken terminals,   consultants that  are not  on duty  during scheduled
          times,  any software  problems,  or the need  for paper or ribbons  at a
          cluster site.    SUGGEST is not interactive  with any systems  user,  so
          SUGGEST messages are not read as soon  as they are received.   It may be
          several hours later or on the next business day.  If immediate help with
          the printers is needed, you can call the Computing Center at 257-2900 24
          hours a day.
                                           - 15 -
          To use SUGGEST type
          and follow the given instructions.
               Creating a File
             A file can  be created by using  the editor (see the  section in this
          user guide entitled Sheffield Editor).   Programs and data can be stored
          in files.
             Some files  can be created  by programs.    Within a program  you can
          direct  the output  to be  written to  a  file instead  of the  terminal
          screen. To write to a file, check with a reference guide on the specific
          language you are using.
               Creating a Sub-directory
             Your Prime account may contain sub-directories.   Sub-directories are
          convenient for  grouping related files  together so that  your directory
          does not look cluttered.  A sub-directory can contain files and may also
          contain more sub-directories.
             You can create a sub-directory by using the CREATE command.  When you
          list your directory using the LD command,  you will see the names of the
          files that are in your account and following you will also see your sub-
          directories listed by name.  You can access the files in a sub-directory
          by using the DOWN command with a sub-directory name.   The commands that
          can be  used in  association with  sub-directories follow  later in  the
          subsection titled Commands for File and Sub-Directory Handling.
               Naming a File or Sub-directory
             The name  of a  file or  a sub-directory  may have  up to  thirty-two
          characters.   The filename  may  be composed  of  any  of the  following
          characters,  the only restriction being that  the first character of the
          filename may not be a digit.   Please note that blanks (spaces)  are not
          allowed anywhere.
                   A-Z       (alphabet)
                   0-9       (numeric digits)
                   &         (ampersand)
                   #         (pound sign)
                   $         (dollar sign)
                   -         (dash, minus sign)
                   *         (asterisk, star)
                   .         (period, dot)
                   /         (slash, divide sign)
                   _         (underscore)
                                           - 16 -
               Naming Conventions
             There are few  restrictions on the name  that you can give  a file on
          the  PRIME.   However,   you  should note  that  many  of the  compilers
          (language  processors)  and  commands  on the  PRIME  will make  certain
          assumptions if you follow certain naming guidelines.
             Filename suffixes help  to identify the file contents  with regard to
          the language in which the source code was written.  For instance, if you
          wrote a  Pascal program and  named the  file containing the  source code
          "PROG1.PAS",   then  the  compilation  and  execution  of  that  program
          (depending  on  the  options  specified)  might  produce  a  file  named
          "PROG1.BIN"  which would  contain the  binary  code,  and  a file  named
          "PROG1.LIST" which would contain the program listing.  Furthermore,  SEG
          (the SEGmented loader) or BIND would take the binary file,  link all the
          necessary  libraries  that  you  specify,   and  produce  a  file  named
          "PROG1.SEG" with SEG or "PROG1.RUN" with  BIND,  which would contain the
          binary code necessary to execute the program.
             Some common filename suffixes are:
                   BASIC, C, COB, COBOL85, F77, PAS, SPIT (source files)
                   BIN    the binary code produced by the compiler
                   LIST   the program listing produced by the compiler
                   SEG    the linked binary code produced by SEG
                   RUN    executable code produced by BIND
             Some files  which do not  use standard  suffixes may instead  use the
          filename prefixes to identify the contents of the file.
             Some common filename prefixes are:
                   B_     Binary code produced by compiler
                   L_     Source program listing
                   C_     Command files
                   T$     Temporary work files (For example, T$0000)
                   #      Seg files
               Commands for File and Sub-directory Handling
             PRIMOS has  several commands  to control  and access  files and  file
          contents.   These commands can be used to list the contents of files and
          directories, and to copy, add, delete,  edit,  and print the contents of
          files.    The   capitalized  letters  of   each  command   indicate  the
          abbreviation for that command.   For example, LD is the abbreviation for
          the List Directory command.
                   Attach arg          Allows you to  attach to  the
                                       directory  arg if the account
                                       you are currently logged into
                                       is specified  in  the  Access
                                       Control List of directory arg.
                                           - 17 -
                   Close arg           Closes  the  file  arg.   Arg
                                       could be a filename or a list
                                       of PRIMOS file unit  numbers,
                                       or  the   word  "ALL"   which
                                       closes  all  open  files  and
                                       units  (except  those created
                                       by the RECORD command). Files
                                       opened   using   the   RECORD
                                       command  can  be  closed with
                                       the RECORD command.
                   CName arg1 arg2     Changes the  name of arg1  to
                                       arg2.  The arguments  can  be
                                       files or directories.
                   COPY arg1 arg2      Copies  a file  or  directory
                                       specified by arg1. When copy-
                                       ing from one directory to the
                                       current directory, arg2 (name
                                       for the new file or directory)
                                       is optional. If arg2 is omit-
                                       ted the same filename in arg1
                                       will be used for the  name of
                                       the  new  file  or directory.
                                       If you are copying from with-
                                       in the same directory arg2 is
                                       not optional.  Both  arg1 and
                                       arg2   can  be  filenames  or
                   CREATE arg          Creates a  new  sub-directory
                                       with  the  name specified  by
                   DELETE  arg         Deletes the directory or file
                                       specified by arg.  Arg  could
                                       also be a list of directories
                                       and/or files to be deleted. A
                                       list   must  be  enclosed  in
                   DOWN arg            Allows you to go  "down into"
                                       a   sub-directory.   You  can
                                       specify which one of  several
                                       sub-directories   to  descend
                                       into with the optional arg.
                   EDit_ACcess arg1 arg2:arg3
                                       Edits the  access rights  for
                                       the   named    directory   or
                                       file.   Arg1  is  the  target
                                       file  or  directory  on which
                                       you  wish  to edit the access
                                       rights. Arg2 is  the  account
                                       to  add  to  the access list.
                                       Arg3  is  the  access  rights
                                       which arg2 will have to arg1.
                                           - 18 -
                   LAC arg             The List ACcess command lists
                                       the access rights of arg. Arg
                                       can  be a  file, a directory,
                                       or a sub-directory. If arg is
                                       omitted, then the access list
                                       for the current  directory is
                                       given.  The information given
                                       lets you know who  has access
                                       to your  account,  files,  or
                   LD                  The   List Directory  command
                                       displays  the  files and sub-
                                       directories  in the directory
                                       you  are  currently  attached
                                       to.  It has several arguments
                                       that  allow   for  controlled
                                       listing  format and selection
                                       of entries.
                   SET_DELETE filename -PRO
                                       Protects a file  named  file-
                                       name from accidental deletion.
                   UP                  Allows you to go  "up into" a
                                       directory one level up. If an
                                       optional  pathname  is speci-
                                       fied as an  argument the tree
                                       is  scanned  at  successively
                                       higher levels.
                   WHERE               Displays   the   pathname  of
                                       where   you   are   currently
                                           - 19 -
               Listing the Contents of Files
             To list (show) the contents of a file at your CRT terminal, type
                   SLIST filename
          where filename  is the name  of the file  that you want  printed.   When
          using SLIST the file will be listed to  your screen until the end of the
          file.   If you would like for only one  screen of lines from the file to
          be printed and wait for you to  hit return before seeing the next screen
          of lines from the file, type
                   DISP filename
             To list (print)  the contents of a  file on a printer,  use the PRINT
          command.  The format of the PRINT command is:
                   PRINT filename destination
          where filename  is the  name of  the file  that you  want printed,   and
          destination is the name of the printer  where you want the file printed.
          For example,  if you want the file PROG1.BASIC printed on the printer at
          the M. I. King Library, you would type:
                   PRINT PROG1.BASIC LIB
             PRIMOS will provide an informative message  telling you that the file
          specified  was sent  to  print and  the  length of  the  file in  PRIMOS
          records.   To see the entries in the PRINT queue,  use the -LIST option.
          You would therefore type:
                   PRINT -LIST
             PRIMOS will then provide a complete list  of all the files waiting to
          print on  all printers.    Included with  this information  will be  the
          filename of the files waiting to print,   the userid of the user who has
          sent the file to print, the time that the file was sent, and the size of
          the file  in PRIMOS records.    The option -DETAIL  may be added  to the
          PRINT command in order to see more information concerning where the file
          is being printed and the full pathname of the file.
                                           - 20 -
             For your  convenience,  the  printer names  and locations  are listed
                   PRINTER NAME       LOCATION
                   ------------       --------
                   AG                 Ag Data Center
                   DORM               Kirwin-Blanding Complex Commons
                   DORMLP             Kirwin-Blanding Complex Commons
                   LASER              McVey Hall, Room 111
                   LIB                M. I. King Library, Room 213
                   MCV111             McVey Hall,  Room 111
                   HSLC               Health Sciences Learning Center, 6th floor
                   POTM1              Patterson Office Tower, Mezzanine
                   POTM2              Patterson Office Tower, Mezzanine
                   STC208             Student Center, Room 208
          (The following printers are connected to the IBM system but are
           accessible to PRIME users through the PRINT command)
                   CENTRAL                 McVey Hall, Data Center (basement)
                   CCUSER1                 McVey Hall, Room 111
                   HOT                     McVey Hall, Room 111
             You can change your login password by using the CPW (Change_PassWord)
          command.  To do this,  you must  enter your current password when asked.
          PRIMOS will query you for the new password, and then will require you to
          confirm your new password.  You must  successfully pass all three stages
          of this procedure for the password change to take place.
             For example,  if  your current password is oldpass and  you wanted to
          change your  password to  newpass,  you would  go through  the following
          PRIMOS session (remember, "OK," is the system prompt).
                   OK, CPW
                   Old Password:  oldpass
                   New Password:  newpass
                   Reenter new password for confirmation:  newpass
             Neither the old password or the new password will be displayed on the
          screen when you type them.   Passwords must  be at least 5 characters in
          length but not  more than 16 characters long.   Embedded  spaces are not
                                           - 21 -
             You can save a  copy of your terminal session in a  file by using the
          RECORD command.  When you type
                   RECORD filename
          everything which  is typed or  displayed on  the CRT,  after  the RECORD
          command,  is saved  (recorded)  into the file named on  the command line
          (filename).   You  will be notified if  a file by that  filename already
          exists.  If you wish to write over the file, type
                   RECORD filename -O
             When you have finished performing whatever task it is that you want a
          hardcopy of, you type
                   RECORD -End
          which will stop  recording your session and will close  the RECORD file.
          You can  now print  the RECORD  file using  the PRINT  command as  shown
          earlier in this manual.
             The Mail  system on the  Prime may be used  to send letters  to other
          users, to read letters sent by other users, and to post and read letters
          on the PRIME bulletin  board system.   To use the Mail  system enter the
          following command:
             The "> "  prompt will be displayed on the  screen.   Mail subcommands
          may now  be entered.    Some of  the more  common subcommands  and their
          purpose follow.
                TO arg        Sends mail to the user whose account number
                              is specified by arg.  You will be asked for
                              a subject when you send mail.  The  subject
                              will be inserted on the Subject line of the
                              letter.  When you are finished entering the
                              letter type QUIT. You  will be asked if you
                              are  "Ready to quit now?"  Answer  yes  and
                              the mail will be sent.
                Read          Displays a letter, a group of  letters,  or
                              all the letters in  a  mailbox.  After  you
                              read  a  letter  the  prompt  "Disposition"
                              will  be  displayed.  At this point you can
                              enter  any  of  the  following subcommands:
                              APpend, Copy, Delete, FILe, FOrward,  Help,
                              Keep, Quit, or the Return key.
                Help          Displays the help file for Mail.
                                           - 22 -
                Quit          Exits from Mail.
             Any  information on  the  Mail  command line  will  be  treated as  a
          subcommand,  and Mail will exit after  the subcommand is executed.   For
                   MAIL Read
          will enter the Mail system,  let you  read all the mail you have waiting
          in your mailbox, and then exit the Mail system.
             For more information on using the bulletin board system in mail, type
          HELP MAIL.
             Mail can also  be sent to other  people throughout the world  who are
          connected  via networks  such as  BITNET  or Internet.    Both of  these
          networks are  a type of 'long  distance service' letting  computers  and
          their users  at different  locations around  the world  communicate with
          each other.   BITNET links educational institutions while Internet links
          educational and industrial locations.
             To send  mail to someone  through BITNET  or Internet you  will first
          need to obtain their address.  The address would consist of their userid
          followed by an '@' symbol followed by the name  of the computer on which
          their userid is located.   The computer name is also referred  to as the
          nodename.    A  typical  address  for BITNET  may  look  something  like
          UK00000@UKPR or for Internet it may look like UK00000@ukpr.uky.edu.   If
          you are just sending mail to another  user on the computer where you are
          currently logged on,  there is no need  to add the '@' and the nodename.
          Following is  a list  of some  common nodenames  for other  computers on
          campus and at other universities.
          UK Campus
          Computer                            Nodenames
                                   BITNET                  Internet
          PRIME 6650               UKPR                   ukpr.uky.edu
          IBM 3090                 UKCC                   ukcc.uky.edu
          NeXTs (public labs)                             mik.uky.edu
          Math Sciences                                   ms.uky.edu
          Wang                                            ukwang.uky.edu
          Morehead State University (Prime Computer)   MOREKYPR
          Morehead State University (IBM Computer)     MOREKYVM
          University of Louisville (IBM Computer)      ULKYVM
          University of Louisville (Vax Computer)      ULKYVX
          Eastern Kentucky University                  EKU
          Transylvania University                      TRANSY
          Northern Kentucky University                 NKUVAX
          Yale University                              YALEVM
                                           - 23 -
             The PRIME  supports several computer languages  which you can  use to
          write your programs.   Computer languages  are processed by compilers or
          interpreters.  Most  languages are compiled  first and require  a second
          step  to link  all  the required  library routines  before  they can  be
          executed.   A linker or loader performs  this function by loading in the
          binary code produced by compilation and then searching the library names
          that  you  specify  for  the  missing  routines.    However,   for  your
          convenience, the UKCC PRIME staff has written a command, EXEC, that does
          this for you.    The EXEC command is  explained in more detail  later in
          this manual.   Please remember the naming conventions discussed earlier.
          A BASIC program should have an  extension of '.BASIC',  a PASCAL program
          should have  an extension  of '.PAS',  and  a C  program should  have an
          extension of '.C'.
             The  ADA  language used  on  the  Prime  is  from the  University  of
          Virginia/Gensoft.   It was developed by Western Digital Corporation, but
          the group  responsible for  the compiler  later split  off from  Western
          Digital to  form Gensoft  Corporation.   They bought  the rights  to the
          compiler.  Gensoft has been working on ADA in close cooperation with the
          Advanced  Development  Group of  the  Academic  Computer Center  at  the
          University of  Virginia.   This version of  ADA is a full  ANSI standard
          implementation, but is not yet a validated version.
             The LOAD-AND-GO  system compiles  an ADA program  stored in  a PRIMOS
          file.   If the compilation is successful then the program is immediately
          executed; subsequently, it may be re-executed any number of times at the
          user's discretion.   If the compilation  is unsuccessful,  a compilation
          listing  is produced.    Programs run  with the  LOAD-AND-GO system  are
          limited to input from and output to the user terminal.  To use the LOAD-
          AND-GO system, for example on a program named PROG1, just type:
                   ADA PROG1
             An important  restriction imposed by  the LOAD-AND-GO system  is that
          the base name of the source treename must be the same as the name of the
          main procedure of the ADA program to be compiled.   For example,  if the
          main procedure is called MAIN,  then the filename must be either MAIN or
                                           - 24 -
             To enter the BASIC subsystem, type
          You will now be  in the BASIC environment.   While you  are in the BASIC
          environment,  the  PRIMOS prompt  will be replaced  by the  BASIC prompt
          which is  the "greater than"  sign ( ">"  ).   This prompt  signals that
          BASIC is  waiting for  you to enter  either a BASIC  command or  a BASIC
             The major commands in BASIC are:
                   LIST                               RUN
                   FILE                               QUIT
                   NEW                                OLD
             For specific  information regarding the BASICV  programming language,
          refer to PRIME's reference manual, "BASIC/VM Programmer's Guide".
             The C  language was  created in 1972  by Dennis  Ritchie at  the Bell
          Laboratories in Murray Hill,  New Jersey.  One of the first applications
          of  C  was the  re-implementation  of  the  UNIX  (a trademark  of  Bell
          Laboratories)  operating system,  which was originally written in PDP-11
          assembly language. Traditionally, systems programs such as compilers and
          operating systems  were written  in assembler,  since  it was  felt that
          high-level languages were not efficient enough to perform these types of
          tasks.   The success of UNIX has shown that a language such as C,  which
          can more aptly be described as a  medium-level language,  can be used to
          write efficient systems programs.
             Over the past decade, C has steadily increased in popularity.  Both C
          and UNIX  have been widely  used at  colleges and universities  for some
          time.  Recently,   C has  caught the interest  of the  general computing
          community.  C has a unique blend of features,  combining the convenience
          of a high-level language with the flexibility of assembler.
             For specific information regarding the C programming language,  refer
          to PRIME's reference manual,  "PRIME C Users Guide".   Another source of
          information on the C programming language  is The C Programming Language
          (2nd edition) by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie.
             The newest version of COBOL on the Prime is COBOL85.  The suffix of a
          program  under  this  new  compiler is  COB,   or  COBOL85.    For  more
          information on the language, type HELP COBOL85.
                                           - 25 -
          FORTRAN 77
             FTN77 is the compiler for the FORTRAN 77 language.  FTN77 has a Load-
          and-GO (LGO)  facility which removes the need to use a linker or loader.
          To use FTN77 to compile and execute a program named prog1, type
                   FTN77 prog1 -LGO
          which performs the compile and execute (-LGO) in one step.
             External libraries and binary routines  may be included by specifying
          them after the  -LGO option.  For example,   if you had a  program named
          prog1 that  used a  binary compilation of  a routine  in your  UFD named
          routine1, you would type
                   FTN77 prog1 -LGO -LIB ROUTINE1
          This step would  compile the program named  prog1 and link it  with your
          binary file ROUTINE1 for unresolved references.
             For specific information regarding the FORTRAN 77 language,  refer to
          "The University of Salford FTN77 Reference Guide".   Also you can attach
          to the directory named MANUAL and examine the file named FTN77.MANUAL.
             The PRIME  uses the University of  Sheffield PASCAL.   There  are two
          commands for using PASCAL: (1) PASCALG, which is the load-and-go version
          and (2) PASCALS, which requires the use of a linker or loader.
             To use the load-and-go PASCAL,  which automatically compiles,  links,
          and executes, type
                   PASCALG filename
          To use the version which produces a  binary file and requires the use of
          a linker or loader (see the section on BIND) in order to execute, type
                   PASCALS filename
             For specific  information regarding the PASCAL  programming language,
          use the PRIME HELP system by issuing the command: HELP PASCAL, or attach
          to the MANUAL directory and examine the file named PASCALS.INFO.
                                           - 26 -
             PILOT is a  programming language developed for use  in Computer Aided
          Instruction (CAI)  programs.  Since CAI programs are highly interactive,
          this  language  was designed  to  be  highly  efficient with  regard  to
          interactive tasks.   To compile and execute a PILOT program named prog1,
                   PILOT prog1
             For specific information about PILOT,   attach to the directory named
          MANUAL and examine the file named PILOT.MANUAL.
             PROLOG  (PROgrammed in  LOGic)   is not  an  algebraic language  like
          FORTRAN or PASCAL,  but was designed to allow the programmer to describe
          the known  facts and  relationships about a  known problem.    PROLOG is
          ideally suited for applications involving symbolic computation.   PROLOG
          has been  used in many  applications including  artificial intelligence,
          natural  language processing  and expert  systems.  PROLOG  is from  the
          University of Salford (England).
             For specific  information regarding the PROLOG  programming language,
          attach  to  the  directory  named MANUAL  and  examine  the  file  named
             ORACLE Relational  Database Management System  is a  computer program
          that manages pieces of information (data) stored in a computer.   ORACLE
          lets you get to  this data by providing you with a  set of commands that
          tell the computer what to do.   These  commands are in a language called
          SQL.   SQL is intended for use by both data processing professionals and
          people who  have little or no  knowledge of computers.   To  use ORACLE,
          contact the PRIME ORACLE Database Administrator at the Computing Center.
             Primeword is a full-screen wordprocessor that lets you create,  edit,
          and print  professional looking  documents.   It  has features  of spell
          checking with a 100,000 word  dictionary,  list processing (Merge),  and
          capabilities for scientific equations.   It is menu-driven for easy use,
          with predefined  formats for  beginners or more  advanced users  may set
          their own formats.    The printers at the  cluster sites can be  used to
          print rough drafts.   The two laser printers,  located in 111 McVey Hall
          and the  Kirwan-Blanding Complex Commons Area  are to be used  for final
                                           - 27 -
          copies only.    A PRIMEWORD Users Guide  can be obtained from  111 McVey
          Hall,  the Consulting Room in 107 McVey  Hall,  or you can attach to the
          directory named MANUAL and examine the file PRIMEWORD.MANUAL.
             GLIM (Generalized  Linear Interactive Models)   was developed  by the
          Royal Statistical Society in England.   GLIM was developed originally as
          a framework for the fitting of generalized linear models to data, but it
          has other uses.   It can be used  as a calculator,  operating on vectors
          and scalars with arithmetic expressions and functions.  GLIM can also be
          used for  exploratory data analysis and  as a teaching aid.    To access
          GLIM on the PRIME, type
                   SEG GLIM03>#GLIM
             The  IMSL  libraries  (single and  double  precision)   contain  many
          subroutines to do statistical analysis  from FORTRAN programs.   A small
          introductory manual  is available  in the  manual rack  at the  terminal
          cluster sites.  This  guide briefly describes the  routines available in
          the IMSL package.  You need to compile programs using IMSL with FTN77 to
          create a .BIN file and then use  BIND to create a .RUN file.   Following
          are the commands you would use:
                   FTN77 programname -FRN -INTL
                   LOAD programname
                   LIBRARY IMSLIB
                   LIBRARY F77LIB
          Then to actually run the program use:
                   R programname
             A complete  set of  reference manuals for  IMSL may  be found  in the
          Consulting Room,  107 McVey Hall.
          ***IMSL will be removed from the Prime system in December 1992.
                                           - 28 -
          ***Note:  QuickPlan is no longer a supported product.
             QuickPlan is a spreadsheet program used on the Prime.   You can enter
          the spreadsheet by typing
             Following are the commands which can be used in QuickPlan.   For more
          information, type HELP QUICKPLAN.
                                     QuickPlan Commands
          /B - Blank the highlighted cell.
          /C - Clear the sheet and reset everything.
          /D - Delete the row or column on which the cursor lies.
               Subcommands - R - Row
                             C - Column
          /E - Edit the contents of the highlighted cell.
          /F - Change the format of the highlighted cell.
               Subcommands - D - Reset format to default set previously by /GF.
                             G - Specify general format.
                             I - Specify integer format.
                             L - Specify left-justified format for values.
                             R - Specify right-justified format for values.
                             $ - Specify dollar and cents format.
                             * - Specify bar-graph format.
          /G - Change the value of global parameters.
               Subcommands - C - Change the global column width.
                             O - Change the order of reevaluation (either by rows or
                             R - Change the type of recalculation (either automatic
                                 or manual).
                             F - Change all unformatted entries to specified format.
                             P - Change the calculation precision.
          /H - Display the Help text.
          /I - Insert a row or column
               Subcommands - R - Row
                             C - Column
          /M - Move a row or column to a new position.
          /P - Print the sheet on a printer or into a specified file.
               Subcommands - S - Print to printer.
                             W - Write to file.
               (Note: The S subcommand to print the sheet directly to
                the printer should not be used. Use only the /PW command.)
          /Q - Quit QuickPlan.
          /R - Replicate a single cell, a row, or a column.
          /S - Load/Save a worksheet from/to a specified file.
               Subcommands - L - Load a specified file.
                             S - Save the entire sheet.
                             V - Save the values of a portion of the sheet.
          /T - Set a tile area (horizontal, vertical, neither, or both)
                                           - 29 -
               Subcommands - H - Fix all rows in window from cursor up.
                             V - Fix all columns in window from cursor left.
                             B - Fix both rows and columns in window.
                             N - Negate all title fixing.
          /V - Display the date and time of the last compilation.
          /W - Split the screen into two windows (horizontal or vertical).
               Subcommands - H - Split window horizontally at cursor position.
                             V - Split window vertically at cursor position.
                             1 - Expand window containing cursor to full screen.
                             S - Initiate synchronized scrolling.
                             U - Terminate synchronized scrolling.
          /-       - Enter a repeating label.
          Backtab  - Erase the last valid character typed.
          Clearspace - Cancel the current operation.
             The  EXEC command  was  written by  the UKCC  staff  to simplify  the
          process of compiling, linking,  and executing programs which require the
          use of BIND.   To use the EXEC command,  you must supply the name of the
          file to be  compiled and executed,  plus  the names of any  routines not
          included in the general libraries (usually these routines are related to
          specific fields, such as IMSL routines).
             The only requirement  to use the EXEC  command is that the  suffix of
          the  filename to  be  compiled  and executed  must  end  in one  of  the
          recognized standard formats.  For example,  a file that contains a BASIC
          program should have a suffix of ".BAS" or ".BASIC".
             The EXEC command allows you to specify up to four (4) libraries to be
          searched  for  unresolved  references.     Libraries  are  specified  by
          appending the  argument "-LIBn lib"  onto the  end of the  command line,
          where "n"  is the  nth library specified  and "lib" is  the name  of the
          library you wish to search.
             For example,   if you wanted  to execute  a FORTRAN 77  program named
          prog1 which  required the binary routine  named routine1 in a  ufd named
          UFD000, you would type
                   EXEC PROG1 -LIB1 UFD000>ROUTINE1
             For more information, type HELP EXEC.
                                           - 30 -
          BIND  creates  runfiles from  binary  files  produced by  the  following
          compilers:  CC,  COBOL85,  FTN77,  and PASCALS.   The format of the BIND
          command comes in either interactive or command-line.
               OK, BIND                        /* BIND print a : prompt on next line.
               : LOAD pathname                 /* The object file with main procedure.
               : LOAD pathname2                /* Another optional object file.
               : LIBRARY library_name          /* Language-specific library.
               : LIBRARY library_name2         /* Application library. Optional.
               : LIBRARY                       /* Prime standard system library. Required.
               BIND COMPLETE                   /* Message from BIND.
               : FILE pathname                 /* Saves EPF "pathname.RUN" and returns
                                               /* to PRIMOS.
          OK, BIND -LO pathname [-LO name2] [-LI libname1] [-LI libname2] -LI
             The language-specific libraries used with the LIBRARY subcommand are:
                 CC:       C_LIB                   COBOL85:    COBOL85LIB
                 FTN77:    F77LIB                  Pascal:     IPASLB
                 PMA:      none
             For more information on BIND, type HELP BIND.
                                           - 31 -
                                    THE SHEFFIELD EDITOR
          LINE EDITOR
             An editor is used to create and  modify files stored on disk.   These
          files could be data files, files containing source code, etc.   The name
          of the Sheffield Editor is ED (EDitor). To initiate the editor, type
                   ED arg
          where arg is the name of the file you intend to edit. This will load the
          specified file  into the  editor and  prompt you  for edit  commands  by
          placing you in the edit mode.  If you are creating a new file, type
             When you do not  provide a filename on the command  line,  the editor
          knows that you  are creating a new  file and will automatically  put you
          into the input mode.
             The editor has two modes,  input and  edit.  ED will provide you with
          line prompts so  you know exactly what  mode you are in  when entering a
          command or data.  The "&" is the prompt for the input mode,  and the "$"
          is the prompt for the edit mode.
               Input Mode
             In the input  mode,  the editor inserts everything you  type into the
          file that you are building.
               Edit Mode
             In the edit mode,  you must enter recognizable commands that tell the
          editor what you  want to do.  You  would generally use the  edit mode to
          change information currently in the file.
               Changing Between Modes
             To change from one mode to another,  press the RETURN key only at the
          beginning of a new line.  The editor will  type the name of the mode for
          you and will present the new respective prompt ("&" or "$").
               More Information on the Line Editor
             Specific information  about usage and commands  can be found  in "The
          New  User's Guide  to  EDITOR and  RUNOFF".   A  summary  of the  editor
          commands is available in "PRIMOS  Commands:  The Programmers Companion".
          A  UKCC-written  manual,   "UKCC Sheffield  Editor  User's  Guide",   is
                                           - 32 -
             Line editor  commands may  be issued from  within the  Window editor,
          discussed later, by using DEL C.
             Shortened forms of the commands are shown in Upper Case.
             Command           Description
             Append string     Append string to current line.
             Bottom            Move cursor to bottom of file.
             BRief             Suppress verification output  after establishing or
                               changing a line.
             BUffer n          Switch to buffer n (1..99).
             BUffer            Display buffers.
             CEntre            Center text on the current line within the margins.
                               Replace the first occurrence  of string1 by string2
                               on the current line.
             Change/string1/string2/G arg
                               Replace all  occurrences of  string1 by  string2 on
                               the current line.  The optional variable arg can be
                               used for changing more than one line.  Arg can be a
                               negative or positive number for number of lines,  *
                               for all lines,  or M for changing from current line
                               to 'marked' line.
             COminput file     Obey a file of line editor commands.
             DELBuf n1 n2..    Delete specified buffers.
             Delete n          Delete n lines.
             Delete TO string  Delete up to but not  including the line containing
             DUnload file n    Copy n lines to file and delete them.
             DU file TO string Copies  up  to  but not  including  the  next  line
                               containing 'string'. The text is copied to the file
                               specified and is deleted from the current file.
             EDit file         Start new edit of a file
             Erase char        Set char to be ERASE character.
             EXPand            Replace tab characters with spaces.
             EXtract buffer col1 col2 options
                               Extract a vertical column of text into a buffer.
             FILe file         Save file, and end edit.
             FILEAll           Saves  all   files  which   have  been   tagged  as
             Find string       Find line with string starting in column 1.
             Find(n) string    Find line with string starting in column n.
             FName file        Change current name using file
             FName             Display current name.
             Gmodify subdirs   Modify the current line using subdirectives.
             Help              Enter HELP system.
             IB string         Insert string before current line.
             Insert string     Insert string after current line.
             IW                Switch to input window mode.
             Kill char         Set char to be the KILL character.
             LInesz n          Report when the cursor is on  a line of more than n
                               (default 1023) characters.
             LOAd filename     Copy a file into the workfile below current line.
                                           - 33 -
             LOADState file    Used to read a file of commands.
             Locate string     Move the cursor to the next line containing string.
             Locate(n) string  Move the cursor to the  next line containing string
                               on/after column n.
             MACClear          Clear all window edit macros.
             MACLoad filename  Load macros from file.
             MACPrint          Display all macros.
             MACPrint maclist  Display only specified macros.
             MACSave filename  Save window edit macros.
             MArk n            Mark line n for CHANGE or TEXT.   (If n=0 marker is
                               removed and n is optional.)
             MErge buffer col1 col2 options
                               Allows merging of two file buffers side by side.
             MODE              Display or change editor settings.  These modes are
                               listed in the MODE Options section.
             Modify/string1/string2/G arg
                               Same as CHANGE, but preserves column alignment.
             MOVe buffer1 buffer2
                               Move   editing  instructions   from  buffer2   into
             MOVe buffer1 /string/
                               Move  editing instructions  stored  in string  into
             Next n            Move cursor n lines, then to column 1.
                               (Default n = 1; n can be negative or positive.)
             NEW file          Looks for first empty or unused buffer and switches
                               to it.
             Next n.m          Move cursor n lines, then to column m.
             NFind string      Find  next  line  which  does  not  contain  string
                               starting in column 1.
             NFind(n) string   Find  next  line  which  does  not  contain  string
                               starting in column n.
             NLocate string    Find next  line which  does not  contain string  at
             NLocate(n) string Find  next  line  which  does  not  contain  string
                               starting on or after column n.
             OOps              Re-instate current  line as  it was  before current
             Overlay string    Overlay string on current line.
             POint n           Move pointer to column 1 of line n.
             POint n.m         Move pointer to column m of line n.
             PPrint            Print 4 lines before and  4 lines after the current
             PPrint -m n       Print  m lines  before,  and  n  lines after,   the
                               current line.
             Print n           Print n lines.
             Print buffer      Print line buffer.  (Where buffer = EDLIN or
                               buffer = INLIN).
             PUNCT             Set editor punctuation symbols.
             PSymbol           Print a list of special characters.
             QF                Exit from editor, with no verifying.
             Quit              Exit from editor after verifying.
             RELoad            Reload existing file from disk.
             Retype string     Replace current line by string.
             SAve filename     Copy workfile to filename, but not exit the editor.
             SAVEAll           Save all the file buffers.
             SAVEState file    Save current editing state.
                                           - 34 -
             SIze              Show the sizes of files being edited.
             SPlit buffer#s orientations sw
                               Allows split-screen editing.
             STAts             Count words and lines in current buffer.
             STyle lm rm pi pb af
                               Used  for text  formatting to  specify left  margin
                               (lm),   right margin  (rm),  paragraph  indentation
                               (pi), blank lines between paragraphs (pb),  and the
                               adjust flag (af),  which would be to ADJUST or FILL
                               the text.    The text  will be  formatted from  the
                               marked line  to the line  the cursor  is positioned
                               on.  The TEXT command can also be used with STYLE.
             Symbol function char
                               Set char to the specified special character.
             TAbset t1 t2..    Set tab positions (up to 30).    Use the TAB key to
                               move to the tab positions.
             TErm n            Switch or display terminal types.
             TEXt n            Format file  according to STYLE  specification from
                               the  marked  line   to  the  line  the   cursor  is
                               positioned on.  The variable n is the column number
                               in which the unformatted text begins.
             Top               Move to top of file.
             Unload file n     Same as DUNLOAD, but lines are not deleted.
             U file TO string  Unloads from current  line up to but  not including
                               the line containing string into file.
             Verify            Activate verification output  after establishing or
                               changing a line.
             VERSion           Print editor version number.
             Where             Print current  line and  column numbers  and buffer
             WI                Switch to window mode.
             Xeq buffer        Executes contents of specific buffer.
             Xeq               Executes contents of last command.
             ! command         Obey specific Primos command.
               MODE Options
             MODE can  be followed by  any of the  following to alter  the current
          editor settings.
             CHAIN           Switches on buffer chaining.
             NoCHAIN         Switches off buffer chaining.
             CKpar           Activate parity.
             NoCKpar         Cancel parity.
             COlumn          Activate column indicator.
             NoCOlumn        Cancel column indicator.
             COMo            Allows COMO (RECORD) files of window sessions.
             NoCOMo          Turns off COMO (or recording) of window sessions.
             COUnt n1 n2 n3 mode   Activate counter symbol.
             NoCOUnt         Cancel counter symbol.
             DISp            Display the  buffer number and  filename on  entry to
             NoDISp          Do  not display  the buffer  number  and filename  on
             INDent          Used with window editing for automatic indenting.
             NoINDent        No indent.
                                           - 35 -
             INSert          Switch to insert mode in window editor.
             NoINSert        Switch back to overlay mode.
             Margin          Switches the editor into text processing input mode.
             NoMargin        Switches off MODE MARGIN.
             Number          Activate printing of line numbers.
             NoNumber        No line numbers.
             Prompt          Activate display of prompts.
             NoPrompt        No prompts.
             Quiet           Tells editor not  to print messages which  are purely
                             informative;  error  messages and  prompts are  still
             NoQuiet         Resets message printing to normal.
             SAfety          Switches on safety checks on overwriting files.
             NoSAfety        Switches off checks on overwriting files.
             NoSemi          Give semicolon face value in input.
             Semi            Cause semicolon to be used as line separator in input
               Special Characters Available with the Editor
             ;     Is equivalent to a 'new line' character in the line editor.
                  Used  to  precede BACKSPACE  or  ?   or  itself to  give  these
                   characters their  face value.    It may  also precede  an octal
                   number to represent the ASCII character having that value; i.e.
                   210 represents the ASCII backspace character.
             \     Is used in line edit mode to represent the tab character.
             !     Used with FIND, NFIND, LOCATE, NLOCATE to mean 'any character'.
             #     Similar to !; but means 'any number of spaces or no spaces'.
             ;* n  Used on the end of a command to repeat the command.   (N can be
                   equal to a number of times to  repeat the command or be omitted
                   to repeat until end of file.)
               Special Symbols Available with the Editor
             If you  are in  the editor,   you can  query the  definitions of  the
          special symbols by typing:
             To change a symbol while in the editor, type
                   SYMBOL arg1 arg2
          where arg2 is the new symbol to replace the old symbol arg1.
          Two of the special editor characters are:
                       Used for  literal insertion of special  characters,  i.e.,
                        ""  puts  a "?"  in the  text rather  than "killing"  the
                                           - 36 -
          \             Tab character (use this instead of the tab key).
             Notice that the semicolon (;)   is the default end-of-line character.
          That is, if you type a semicolon while editing,  the EDitor will take it
          to mean a logical end of line.   Thus,  if you are in input mode and you
               This is line one;This is line two;This is line three;
             The editor will  insert these three lines into the  file (without the
                This is line one
                This is line two
                This is line three
             Therefore,  if you need to type a  real semicolon into your file,  it
          can be done in one of four ways:
           1) Use the "EDD" command instead of the EDitor command.
              "EDD" will set "SEMICO OFF".
           2) Type  an escape  character in front of the semicolon
              (escape character is a caret).
           3) Type "SYMBOL SEMICO char" when entering the editor to
              assign some other character to be the logical end-of-line.
           4) Type "MODE NOSEMI" when entering the editor to assign
              no character to the end-of-line function.
             The UKCC  also provides  a tutorial  program that  will interactively
          teach you the Sheffield Editor.  This tutorial is modular;  that is, the
          lessons are not built upon one another. For instance, if you wanted only
          to study the  information in lesson five,   you would not have  to study
          lessons one through four.  To access this tutorial, type
          The tutorial is self-explanatory. Follow the instructions and answer the
          questions as they are indicated.  There is also a manual written by UKCC
          to further explain the use of the editor.   It is called "UKCC Sheffield
          Editor User's Guide".
             Enter the Sheffield window editor to  edit an existing file by typing
          "ED FILENAME -W"  or type "WI" from  the line editor.   To  create a new
          file type "ED -W".   The Sheffield window editor is a full screen editor
          in which you may  use the arrow keys to move around  the screen in order
          to make changes.
                                           - 37 -
               Window Editor Commands
             To use  the window editor commands,   press the DEL key  and release,
          then type the command key.   All alphabetic  command keys can be used in
          upper and  lower case (with the  exception of "A").   Many  commands can
          have their  actions "reversed" by using  CTRL+N instead of the  DEL key.
          CTRL+N is  formed by pressing  the CTRL and "N"  keys at the  same time.
          These will be noted in the list below.
          DEL A     Convert characters from cursor to end of line to UPPER case.
          DEL a     Convert characters from cursor to end of line to lower case.
          DEL B     Break line at cursor position.
          DEL C     Obey a line editor command.
          DEL D     Delete marked text  (see also DEL M)  and copy  to a specified
                    buffer or file.
          DEL E     Exit from window editor to line editor.
                    (Not allowed if -NO_LINE or -SCREEN specified on command line)
          DEL F     Save the file and exit the editor.
          DEL H     Display Help text.
          DEL I     Toggle insert/overwrite mode.
          DEL J     Join next line onto current line at cursor position.
          DEL L     Load text from file or buffer.  (see DEL U, DEL D, DEL M)
          DEL M     Place marker on current line for unloading (see DEL D,  DEL U)
                    or text-formatting.
                    (CTRL+N M - Cancel the marker)
          DEL N     Move forward to next buffer window.
                    (CTRL+N N - Move backward to previous buffer window.)
          DEL O     Insert 12 blank lines.
                    (CTRL+N O  - Delete any blank  lines between current  line and
                    next non-blank line.)
          DEL P     Mark  current character  for deleting  (see DEL  Z)  or  text-
                    (CTRL+N P - Remove currently active character marker)
          DEL Q     Exit the editor without saving the workfile.
          DEL R     Next command to be repeated.   You will be prompted for number
                    of times to repeat.
          DEL S     Save workfile without leaving the editor.
          DEL T     Set a tab stop at cursor position.
                    (CTRL+N T - Clear tab stop at cursor position.)
          DEL U     Copy marked text (see DEL M) to buffer or file.
          DEL V     Move the cursor down 12 lines. (V points downwards)
          DEL W     Switch between edit and input mode.
          DEL X     Execute the last command obeyed by DEL C again.
          DEL Z     Delete a character or delete  from marked character to current
                    cursor position (see DEL P).
          DEL +     Insert a blank line above the current line.
          DEL -     Delete the current line.
          DEL =     Redraw the current line.
          DEL "     Insert a copy of the current line.
          DEL &     Insert one space at cursor position.
                    (CTRL+N &  --  Delete one character.)
          DEL space Insert 20 spaces at cursor position.
                    (CTRL+N space  - Delete spaces to  the immediate right  of the
                    cursor on the line.)
          DEL /     Truncate the current line at the cursor position.
                                           - 38 -
          DEL >     Move cursor to next tab position.
          DEL <     Move cursor to previous tab position.
          DEL '     Initiate text-formatting.  (Used with DEL M and DEL P.)
          DEL (     Start definition of a macro.
                    (CTRL+N (  --  Delete a specified macro.)
          DEL )     End definition of a macro.
          DEL      Move cursor to beginning of file.
          DEL      Move cursor to end of file.
          DEL      Move cursor  to one  past the  last character  on the  current
          DEL      Move cursor to beginning of the current line.
          DEL      Move cursor up 12 lines. ( points upwards)
          DEL {     Move cursor down 20 lines. (Pseudo down page)
          DEL }     Move cursor up 20 lines. (Pseudo up page)
          Special Keys in the Window Editor
          RETURN               Move cursor  to beginning  of next  line (see  line
                               editor MODE INDENT command).
          HOME                 Move cursor to top left corner.
          BACKSPACE            Move the cursor one place to the left.
                              Move cursor one position up.
                              Move cursor one position down.
                              Move cursor one position right.
                              Move cursor one position left.
          TAB                  Move cursor to next tab position.
          BACK TAB             Move cursor to previous tab position.
          CLEAR SPACE          Redraw the screen.
          CTRL+X               Cancels the action being prompted for.
          (NOTE:  For more commands or detailed  information on the line or window
          editor,  a UKCC  Sheffield Editor User's Guide can be  obtained from 111
          McVey Hall, the Consulting Room in 107 McVey Hall,  or you can attach to
          the directory named MANUAL and examine the file EDITOR.MANUAL.)
                                           - 39 -
                                     MINI-COMMAND LEVEL
             The current  revision of  the operating system  limits the  number of
          times you  may break and/or have  a program abnormally end.    When this
          limit (10) is exceeded,  you will be placed into an environment known as
          the mini-command level.  At this level you will only be allowed to issue
          a limited number of commands.  These commands can be found by typing LMC
          (List_Mini_Commands).  To recover from this environment you may type RLS
          -ALL.    If you  still  do  not recover,   a  more  drastic command  ICE
          (Initialize Command  Environment)  may  be issued.    Not only  does ICE
          release the command levels from your stack, it will deallocate NPX slave
          processes,   clear all  virtual circuits  open,  close  all open  files,
          deallocate private dynamic and static segments,  reset the ring3 command
          environment, and execute your login file.
             After executing any program that requires loading,  and BIND is used,
          it  would be  good to  type  RLS -ALL  or  ICE if  a program  abnormally
          terminates, before re-compiling and executing.   The reason is that when
          a RUN file,  produced  by BIND,  is executed,  it is  loaded and KEPT in
          memory for  further executions.   If  you do  not release your  stack by
          using  RLS  -ALL,  you  will  execute  the  same  code as  the  previous
          execution,  thus receiving the same error.   This recommendation applies
          only to programs that terminate abnormally.
                                           - 40 -
                                   COMMON ERROR MESSAGES
             This section provides a list of common PRIMOS error messages.   For a
          complete list of compiler and source  language error messages,  refer to
          the appropriate language reference manual.
          Error Message                Explanation
          -------------                -----------
          INSUFFICIENT ACCESS RIGHTS   An attempt was made to attach  to  an
                                       account that was protected by an  ACL
                                       in which you were not granted  access
          FILE IN USE                  Attempt  was made to open a file that
                                       was  already  open and  in  use.   To
                                       remedy  this,  you  should  close the
                                       file specified. If you are in ED, you
                                       can PAUSE  and  close  the  specified
                                       file, then START and continue.
          FILE OPEN ON DELETE          Attempt was made  to  delete  a  file
                                       that was open for input or output. To
                                       remedy this, close the indicated file
                                       using the CLOSE command.
          FILE ALREADY EXISTS          Attempt was made to open a  new  file
                                       with  a  filename that already exists
                                       on the UFD.
          END OF FILE                  Attempt was made to read  input  past
                                       the  last  entry  in a  file  from  a
                                       program.   The  usual causes for this
                                       error are:  no  end-of-file condition
                                       has been specified, an infinite  loop
                                       exists,  or there is a  logic  error.
          POINTER FAULT                PRIMOS  attempted  to   reference  an
                                       argument or instruction not in memory
                                       This usually occurs when the  load is
                                       not complete.   Check your program to
                                       insure for both  calling  and  called
                                       programs that  the  program  name and
                                       argument list  correspond,  and  that
                                       any   needed   arrays  are   properly
                                       declared.    Also,  check   the  LOAD
                                       sequence  to  insure  that  the "LOAD
                                       COMPLETE" message was received.
                                           - 41 -
          Error Message                Explanation
          -------------                -----------
          MAXIMUM QUOTA EXCEEDED       The directory has no  more disk space
                                       for user files.  To remedy, you  must
                                       delete  all unnecessary files to free
          ACCESS VIOLATION             An  attempt  was  made  to perform an
                                       operation  in a  part  of  memory  to
                                       which  you  have   no  rights.   Your
                                       program  could  have  an   unresolved
                                       reference  (LOAD NOT COMPLETE). Check
                                       for   compilation   errors,   program
                                       errors, and  unresolved   references.
          MAXIMUM INACTIVE TIME        This  occurs when  a terminal is left
          LIMIT EXCEEDED               unused (inactive)  for  fifteen  (15)
                                       minutes.   PRIMOS will, after fifteen
                                       minutes,  automatically  log you out.
          BAD OBJECT FILE              An  attempt was made to  load a  file
                                       which was not of the expected format.
                                       This error usually  occurs when using
                                       a  linker  or  loader and a file that
                                       was not a binary  file  was specified
                                       to be loaded.  Also, this error could
                                       be caused by attempting to   load  or
                                       execute a file that did not  complete
                                       the compilation process successfully.
          (Nothing Happens)            If you attempt  to  execute a program
                                       and   you  wait  an  abnormally  long
                                       period of time and have  no  results,
                                       you  have  one  of  several  possible
                                       errors. Check  to  see if the program
                                       is waiting for user input, or for the
                                       existence  of an  infinite  loop.  To
                                       avoid wasting valuable  computer time
                                       and  your account's  resources,   you
                                       should press the "break"  key to stop
                                       program  execution  as  soon  as  you
                                       suspect a problem.
                                           - 42 -
                                  GETTING MORE INFORMATION
             PRIME Computer,  Inc.,  publishes several  manuals which provide more
          information about the PRIME Computer System.   Most of these manuals are
          available  through  the  University  Bookstore  in  the  Student  Center
          (Lexington  Campus).   Most  documentation for  software purchased  from
          third parties is located on the IBM  system and can be printed centrally
          on the 3800 Laser printer,  using the MANUAL command.   Reference copies
          of  most  of  these  manuals are  available  at  each  terminal  cluster
          The PRIME User's Guide
             Provides general information about PRIMOS, the standard commands, the
          editor,  the file system,  and other  facilities.   (A UKCC Prime User's
          Guide is available from the Computing Center.)
          The New User's Guide to EDitor and RUNOFF
             Provides a very  basic introduction to the editor and  the PRIME word
          processor RUNOFF. (A UKCC Sheffield Editor User's Guide* is available.)
          The PRIMOS Commands Reference Manual
             Provides a complete reference to all of the standard system commands.
          The LOAD and SEG Reference Guide
             Provides complete information about LOAD and SEG.
          The Subroutines Reference Guide
             Provides detailed  information about the PRIME  subroutine libraries,
          which contain many subroutines which can be used in your programs.
          The CPL User's Guide
             Provides detailed  information regarding the  context and use  of the
          Command Procedure Language (CPL).
          The Source Level Debugger Reference Guide
             Provides information about the PRIME interactive debugger DBG.
          BASIC/VM Programmers Guide
             Provides  detailed information  about  the  PRIME BASICV  Programming
          The University of Salford FTN77 Reference Manual*
             Provides detailed information about  the "fast" FORTRAN77 Programming
          Language and the FTN77 Compiler from the University of Salford.
                                           - 43 -
          The University of Salford LISP/PROLOG Reference Manual*
             Provides detailed information  about the LISP and  PROLOG Programming
          Languages from the University of Salford.
          PRIME C Users Guide
             Provides detailed information about the  PRIME C Programming Language
          and the PRIME C Compiler.
          PRIMEWORD Documentation Kit
             Provides  a set  of books  in a  slipcase.   The  books are  Learning
          PRIMEWORD, PRIMEWORD Reference Guide,  and PRIMEWORD Your Computer.   (A
          UKCC PRIMEWORD User's Guide* is available.)
          *These manuals are  for third party software or are  written in-house by
          Computing Center  staff.   You  may refer  to them  online in  the PRIME
          directory named MANUAL.    You may also print them out  using the MANUAL
          command on the IBM system.
                                           - 44 -
               A                                  directories, 16
                                                  disciplinary, 2
               account name, 12                   DISP, 20
               accounts, 2                        documentation, 14
               ADA, 24                            DORM, 21
               AG, 21                             DORMLP, 21
               Attach, 17                         DOWN, 18
                                                  duplex, 10
               backslash, 36
               backspace character, 13            EDAC, 18
               BASIC, 17, 25                      EDD, 37
                 documentation, 43                edit, 32
               baud, 10                           editor, 32, 43
               BIN, 17                              line, 32
               BIND, 17, 31                           commands, 33
               BITNET, 23                           tutorial, 37
               BREAK, 13                            window, 37
                                                      commands, 37
               C                                      keys, 39
                                                  ER!, 12
               C, 17, 25                          error messages, 41
                 documentation, 44                errors, 41
               caret, 36                          exclamation point, 36
               CCUSER1, 21                        EXEC, 30
               CENTRAL, 21
               Close, 18                          F
               cluster sites, 10, 21
               CName, 18                          file, 20
               COB, 17                              commands, 17
               COBOL85, 17, 25                      creating, 16
               Commands                           filename, 17, 22
                 documentation, 43                filenames, 16
               complaints, 15                     files, 16
               computer aided instruction, 27       naming, 16
               connecting from home, 10           FORTRAN, 26, 28
               consultants, 10                    FTN77, 26
               Control                              documentation, 43
                 Key, 13                          F77, 17
               COPY, 18
               CPL                                G
                 documentation, 43
               CPW, 21                            general information, 15
               CREATE, 18                         GLIM, 28
               CRT, 10, 13, 20, 22
               CTRL, 13                           H
               D                                  hardcopy output, 10
                                                  help, 14
               data bits, 10                      HOT, 21
               database, 27                       HSLC, 21
                 documentation, 43                I
               DECwriter, 10
               DELETE, 18                         ICE, 42
               dial up, 10                        IMSL, 26, 28
               input, 32                            changing, 21
               internet, 10, 23                   PILOT, 27
                                                  policy, 2
               K                                  POTM1, 21
                                                  POTM2, 21
               kill character, 13                 pound sign, 36
                                                  PRIME, 2
               L                                  PRIMEWORD, 27
                                                    documentation, 44
               LAC                                PRIMOS, 1, 13
                 List_ACcess, 19                  PRINT, 20
               languages, 23                      printers, 10, 20
               LASER, 21                          PROLOG, 27
               LD, 19                               documentation, 44
               LIB, 21                            PSYMBOL, 36
               libraries, 26, 30                  PSYMBOL Editor Command, 36
                 documentation, 44                Q
               LIST, 17
               listing, 20                        QuickPlan, 29
               LMC, 42
               LOAD                               R
                 documentation, 43
               Logging Out, 12                    RECORD, 22
               login, 11                          RETURN, 13
               LOOKUP, 12                         RLS, 42
                                                  rules, 2
               M                                  RUN, 17
               Mail, 22                             documentation, 43
                 Help, 22
                 Quit, 22                         S
                 Read, 22
                 TO, 22                           SEG, 17, 28
               MCV111, 21                           documentation, 43
               MODE, 35                           semicolon, 13, 36-37
               modem, 10                          SET_DELETE, 19
               N                                    Editor, 32
                                                  slist, 20
               nodenames, 23                      special characters, 13
                                                  special keys, 13
               O                                  Special Symbols, 36
                                                    Backslash, 36
               OK,, 12                              Caret, 36
               ORACLE, 27                         spreadsheet, 29
                                                  SQL, 27
               P                                  statistical packages, 28
                                                  STC208, 21
               packages, 23                       stop bits, 10
               parity, 10                         sub-directory
               PAS, 17                              commands, 17
               PASCAL, 26                           creating, 16
               PASCALG, 26                          naming, 16
               PASCALS, 26                        subroutine
               password, 11                         library, 28
               passwords                          Subroutines
                 documentation, 43                UKPR, 10
               SUGGEST, 15                        UP, 19
               suggestions, 15                    userid, 12
               SYMBOL, 36                         Users Guide, 43
               T                                  V
               TEACH, 37                          VIEW, 15
               TERM, 13
               terminal, 13                       W
               terminals, 10
               timeout, 12                        WHERE, 19
                                                  wordprocessing, 27